阿布尼效应

定义

一种光线饱和度发生偏移的现象,通常,由于白光的增加,彩色光的饱和度会降低。

English expression

Abney effect

Definition

A shift in the apparent hue of a light which occurs as colored light is desaturated by the addition of white light.

备注

阿布尼效应描述了向单色光中加入白光会使其观察到的饱和度发生偏移的现象。

根据人眼的视觉特性,增加的白光会冲淡单色光源的颜色。光线中占优势的波长决定了人眼看到的颜色。然而,附加的白光导致的一个并不是非常直接的效应是,它使得人眼察觉的占优势的波长的发生了改变。这种同时存在的色调偏移现象无法用实验仪器进行测量,而只能被人眼辨别出来。

英国化学家、物理学家威廉·德·威伍莱斯利·阿布尼爵士于1909年最早描述了由于白光的作用而导致色调的差异的这一现象,虽然普遍报道的日期是1910年。英国化学家、物理学家威廉·德·威伍莱斯利·阿布尼爵士于1909年最早描述了由于白光的作用而导致色调的差异的这一现象,虽然普遍报道的日期是1910年。白光是红、绿、蓝光的复合光。阿布尼爵士演示了导致色调发生改变的是组成白光的红光、绿光,而同样是白光组分的蓝光对阿布尼效应没有贡献。

See also En.Wikipedia

阿贝-普罗棱镜

定义:

也叫普罗-阿贝棱镜,是传统普罗图片架设棱镜的变形版本,用于双筒望远镜。它是一种反射式的光学棱镜,常配置于一些光学仪器中做图像取向的修正。

English Expression:

Abbe-Porro prism

Definition:

A compact version of the traditional Porro image-erecting prism used in binoculars. It's a type of reflection prism used in some optical instruments to alter the orientation of an image.

备注:

请参考维基百科上的图示和说明  中文 英文

阿贝折射仪

定义:

一种用于测量未知光学玻璃样品折射率的光学仪器。这个仪器是恩斯特•阿贝在20世纪初期设计的,该仪器的测量值通常可以精确到小数点后的第四位(测量精度0.0002)。

English Expression:

Abbe refractometer

Definition:

An optical instrument used to measure the index of refraction of an unknown sample of optical glass. Designed by Ernst Abbe in the early 1900s, this instrument will typically yield index accuracy of two units in the fourth decimal place.

阿贝棱镜

定义:

可以用来倒像的特殊形状的屋脊棱镜。由于是垂直端面,它可以插入物体和望远镜目镜之间。如果屋脊由一个平面代替,它就成为还原棱镜,或称K棱镜。

English Expression:

Abbe prism

Definition:

A particular form of roof prism that can be used to invert an image. Because of the perpendicular end faces, it can be inserted between the objective and eyepiece of a telescope. If the roof is replaced by a plane surface, it becomes a reversion, or K, prism.

阿贝照明

定义:

一种将光源直接成像到查看或投射的对象上的照明方式。这要求有一个强度均匀的光源,例如弧光灯。

English Expression:

Abbe illumination

Definition:

A form of illumination where the source is imaged directly onto the object being viewed or projected. This requires a source of uniform intensity, such as an arc lamp.

阿贝常数

定义:

(也称V数或v数)描述一个光学介质的折射率和色散能力的比值的常数。高V数表示对所有波长的折射近似相等(棱镜的色散较小)。

\(V_d = \frac{n_d - 1}{n_f - n_c}\)

这里, \(V_d\) 表示在 \(\lambda\) = 588 nm时的V数, \(n_f\) 表示在 \(\lambda\) = 486 nm时的f光折射率,\(n_c\)表示在 \(\lambda\) = 656 nm时的c光折射率,\(n_d\) 表示在 \(\lambda\) = 588 nm时的d光折射率。色散平方的倒数。

English Expression:

Abbe condenser

Definition:

(also V-value or v-value). The constant of an optical medium that describes the ratio of its refractivity to its dispersion. A high V-value indicates more nearly equal refraction at all wavelengths (less rainbow from a prism).

\(V_d = \frac{n_d - 1}{n_f - n_c}\)

where \(V_d\) = V-value at \(\lambda\) = 588 nm, \(n_f\) = index of refraction at \(\lambda\) = 486 nm, \(n_c\) = index of refraction at \(\lambda\) = 656 nm, and \(n_d\) = index of refraction at \(\lambda\) = 588 nm. The reciprocal of dispersive power.

阿贝聚光镜

定义:

由物理学家恩斯特·阿贝设计的双透镜组合。阿贝聚光镜位于显微镜的下方,用于聚光并使其直接作用于研究对象。它的高数值孔径使其尤为适合用于大多数中等和高放大倍率的对象。

English Expression:

Abbe condenser

Definition:

A two-lens combination designed by the physicist Ernst Abbe. It is located below the stage of a microscope and functions to collect light and direct it onto the object being examined. Its high numerical aperture makes it particularly suited for use with most medium- and high-magnification objectives.