像差

定义

偏离正规的,正确的或自然的。在光学里,由于透镜系统的缺陷导致光学成像偏离近轴成像规则,称为像差。

English Expression

Aberration

Definition

Deviation from what is normal, right or natural. In optics, defects of a lens system that cause its image to deviate from the rules of paraxial imagery.

阿贝-普罗棱镜

定义:

也叫普罗-阿贝棱镜,是传统普罗图片架设棱镜的变形版本,用于双筒望远镜。它是一种反射式的光学棱镜,常配置于一些光学仪器中做图像取向的修正。

English Expression:

Abbe-Porro prism

Definition:

A compact version of the traditional Porro image-erecting prism used in binoculars. It's a type of reflection prism used in some optical instruments to alter the orientation of an image.

备注:

请参考维基百科上的图示和说明  中文 英文

正弦条件

定义:

是由阿贝首先提出的一个条件。任何球差矫正透镜,如果要同时消除在透镜光轴附近的彗差,就必须遵守这个条件。数学表达式为:

u´/sin U´ = u/sin U

其中u、u´是从物到像的入射和出射近轴光线的斜率,U、U´是对应的旁轴光线的斜率。

English Expression:

sine condition

Definition:

A condition, first stated by Abbe, that must be met by any spherically corrected lens if it is also to be free from coma in the neighborhood of the lens axis. Mathematically the condition is:

u´/sin U´ = u/sin U

where u, u´ are the slopes of the entering and emerging portions of a paraxial ray from object to image and U, U´ are the corresponding slopes of a marginal ray.

备注:

请参考 阿贝正弦条件

阿贝折射仪

定义:

一种用于测量未知光学玻璃样品折射率的光学仪器。这个仪器是恩斯特•阿贝在20世纪初期设计的,该仪器的测量值通常可以精确到小数点后的第四位(测量精度0.0002)。

English Expression:

Abbe refractometer

Definition:

An optical instrument used to measure the index of refraction of an unknown sample of optical glass. Designed by Ernst Abbe in the early 1900s, this instrument will typically yield index accuracy of two units in the fourth decimal place.

阿贝棱镜

定义:

可以用来倒像的特殊形状的屋脊棱镜。由于是垂直端面,它可以插入物体和望远镜目镜之间。如果屋脊由一个平面代替,它就成为还原棱镜,或称K棱镜。

English Expression:

Abbe prism

Definition:

A particular form of roof prism that can be used to invert an image. Because of the perpendicular end faces, it can be inserted between the objective and eyepiece of a telescope. If the roof is replaced by a plane surface, it becomes a reversion, or K, prism.

阿贝照明

定义:

一种将光源直接成像到查看或投射的对象上的照明方式。这要求有一个强度均匀的光源,例如弧光灯。

English Expression:

Abbe illumination

Definition:

A form of illumination where the source is imaged directly onto the object being viewed or projected. This requires a source of uniform intensity, such as an arc lamp.

阿贝常数

定义:

(也称V数或v数)描述一个光学介质的折射率和色散能力的比值的常数。高V数表示对所有波长的折射近似相等(棱镜的色散较小)。

\(\)

这里, \(\) 表示在 \(\) = 588 nm时的V数, \(\) 表示在 \(\) = 486 nm时的f光折射率,\(\)表示在 \(\) = 656 nm时的c光折射率,\(\) 表示在 \(\) = 588 nm时的d光折射率。色散平方的倒数。

English Expression:

Abbe condenser

Definition:

(also V-value or v-value). The constant of an optical medium that describes the ratio of its refractivity to its dispersion. A high V-value indicates more nearly equal refraction at all wavelengths (less rainbow from a prism).

\(\)

where \(\) = V-value at \(\) = 588 nm, \(\) = index of refraction at \(\) = 486 nm, \(\) = index of refraction at \(\) = 656 nm, and \(\) = index of refraction at \(\) = 588 nm. The reciprocal of dispersive power.

阿贝聚光镜

定义:

由物理学家恩斯特·阿贝设计的双透镜组合。阿贝聚光镜位于显微镜的下方,用于聚光并使其直接作用于研究对象。它的高数值孔径使其尤为适合用于大多数中等和高放大倍率的对象。

English Expression:

Abbe condenser

Definition:

A two-lens combination designed by the physicist Ernst Abbe. It is located below the stage of a microscope and functions to collect light and direct it onto the object being examined. Its high numerical aperture makes it particularly suited for use with most medium- and high-magnification objectives.

斜球面像差

定义:

一种成像时形成的对称弥散光斑的中心不在透镜光轴上的像差。当图像从场中心离开时,弥散光斑随之增大,慢慢形成彗差。也称为离轴球面像差

English Expression:

abaxial spherical aberration

Definition:

A type of aberration in which a symmetrical light patch is formed at points that do not lie on the lens axis. When the image moves away from the center of the field, the patch increases in size, aiding in the formation of coma. Also known as abaxial spherical aberration.